The largest study of its kind to date has revealed an association between drinking approximately three cups of coffee per day and a lower risk of mortality from any cause during an average follow-up period of 16.4 years.*
The study included 521,330 men and women who were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Over an average 16.4-year follow-up, there were 41,693 deaths. Among men whose intake of coffee was among the top 25%, the risk of all-cause mortality over follow-up was 12% lower than those who did not drink coffee, and for women, the risk was 9% lower.
Mortality from digestive diseases was 59% lower for men in the top 25% and 40% lower for women.
Women who consumed the highest amount of coffee also benefitted from a 22% lower risk of circulatory disease mortality and a 30% lower risk of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared to nondrinkers.
Editor’s Note: In a subset of subjects, an association was observed between higher coffee intake and lower liver enzyme levels, and for women, an association was also observed with lower C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a) and glycated hemoglobin levels. “We found that drinking more coffee was associated with a more favorable liver function profile and immune response,” observed lead author Dr. Marc Gunter of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. “This, along with the consistency of the results with other studies in the U.S. and Japan gives us greater confidence that coffee may have beneficial health effects.”